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Guns are the main Ranged Weapon in Starbound, and come in many forms. The main types are projectile/energy weapons (though all ranged weapons only use player energy to fire) for use in battling Monsters and enemy NPCs, and Hunting Bows used for the collection of Raw Alien Meat and Leather.
The many specific types of ranged weapons in the game are currently being compiled to a table for you to view here. Because of the Beta nature of the game, the list is not complete, but is as such: