The lore of Starbound is based around a very complex and extensive backstory, and presence of both race-neutral and race-specific lore. The lore is presented through books, logs, documents, and more that can be found throughout the game world. Some extended lore can be found through conversations with NPCs, who will change their approach and context dependent on the race you are playing as. Lore is also extensively covered in the Starbound Codex, which seems to be the most extensive system of lore delivery at this time. The lore has been authored entirely by Tiy and Demanrisu.
"It may seem like a small/insignificant feature to some, but it's something we hope will greatly contribute to the atmosphere of the game as well as the sense of discovery in constantly reading new tidbits of information about each race. So...lore fans, rejoice!" - "The Starbound Chronicle: July 2013"